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Chloride Attack on Concrete Structures - Cause and ...

10/05/2013  Chloride Attack on Concrete Structures is one of the most important phenomena we consider when we deal with the durability of concrete. Among all sources of failure of concrete structures, the chloride attack accounts 40% contribution. The main effect of chloride attack is the corrosion of reinforcement that induces the strength of the structure

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Chloride Attacks on Concrete Structures - ctlgroupqatar

02/02/2019  When considering durability of concrete, chloride attack is the most imminent enemy. It is responsible for almost 40% of failure of concrete structures. In the presence of oxygen and water, chloride attack corrodes the steel reducing the strength of the structure drastically.

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Chloride Attack JPBroomfield

Until the later 1970s it was widely held that chlorides cast into concrete were largely bound as chloroaluminates and would not cause corrosion. It was then found that large numbers of structures with chloride cast into the mix did suffer from corrosion and that binding was not as effective as initially believed. ACI Report 222R-96 reviews the national standards and laboratory data. The ...

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Effect of Chloride Attack on Durability of Concrete ...

Effect of Chloride Attack on Durability of Concrete Concrete Technology. White dealing with the durability aspect of concrete, the chloride effect on concrete is the most impor­tant factor as it causes the corrosion of reinforcement of concrete. The statistical studies have shown that more than 40% structures have failed due to the corrosion ...

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Salt water and corrosion of reinforced concrete ...

Chloride induced corrosion to reinforcement and other embedded metals is the leading cause of deterioration in concrete. When steel corrodes, the resulting rust occupies a greater volume than the steel. The resultant expansion creates tensile stresses in the concrete, which can eventually cause cracking, delamination, and spalling. Sulphates attack concrete by reacting with hydrated compounds ...

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Chloride Attack JPBroomfield

Until the later 1970s it was widely held that chlorides cast into concrete were largely bound as chloroaluminates and would not cause corrosion. It was then found that large numbers of structures with chloride cast into the mix did suffer from corrosion and that binding was not as effective as initially believed. ACI Report 222R-96 reviews the national standards and laboratory data. The ...

Get Price

Chloride Attacks on Concrete Structures - ctlgroupqatar

02/02/2019  When considering durability of concrete, chloride attack is the most imminent enemy. It is responsible for almost 40% of failure of concrete structures. In the presence of oxygen and water, chloride attack corrodes the steel reducing the strength of the structure drastically.

Get Price

The effect of attack of chloride and sulphate on ground ...

Cement concrete structures in highly polluted urban and industrial areas, aggressive seashore environments, harmful subsoil water in coastal areas and many other hostile conditions makes the construction non-durable. Concrete is being used as a construction material in aggressive environment since long days. The more common form of chemical attack is the leaching out of cement and action

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Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview ...

The mechanism of chloride-induced corrosion of steel embedded in concrete, the ingress of chlorides into the concrete, and the threshold chloride content for corrosion to occur are discussed. The binding of chloride ions by cement compounds and the associated effect of using different cements, both Portland and blended, as well as other factors influencing corrosion, are considered. Tests for ...

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Chlorides and concrete.

Corrosion of the reinforcement will be initiated when the chloride ion concentration at the steel reaches the so called ‘threshold level’. The subject of a safe level of chloride is somewhat controversial A fairly traditional view is that below 0.4% chloride by mass of cement represents a low corrosion risk, 0.4 to 1% a medium risk and above 1% a high risk. BRE Digest 444 gives a more ...

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Chloride attack evaluation on concrete compositions ...

Keywords Chloride attack Corrosion Accelerate tests Durability Introduction Because of the reinforced concrete structures early deteri-oration, added to new competitive needs and civil con-struction sustainability requirements, the durability and consequently service life expansion has becoming a meaningful demand among the researchers. Nowadays,

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

19/11/2018  Weak solutions of calcium chloride generally have little chemical effect on concrete, but studies have shown that concentrated calcium chloride solutions can chemically attack concrete. Magnesium chloride deicers have come under recent criticism for aggravating scaling. One study found that magnesium chloride, magnesium acetate, magnesium nitrate, and calcium chloride are more

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

The Role of Chloride Ions Exposure of reinforced concrete to chloride ions is the primary cause of premature corrosion of steel reinforcement. The intrusion of chloride ions, present in deicing salts and seawater, into reinforced concrete can cause steel corrosion if oxygen and moisture are also available to sustain the reaction (Fig. 4 ...

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CORROSION IN CONCRETE UNDER SULPHATE AND CHLORIDE ATTACKS

Corrosion is the main cause of damage to concrete structures. Due to ageing of the infrastructure, maintenance costs have increased to a major part of the total costs. Proper management should ...

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Chemical Attack on Concrete - Structural Guide

04/01/2020  Chemical reactions create additional tensile stress in the concrete and cause cracking. There are three main causes that could cause cracking due to the actions of the chemical attack on concrete. Corrosion of Reinforcements; Alkali-aggregate reaction; Cement Carbonation shrinkage; Effect of Corrosion of Reinforcement on Cracking of Concrete. Corrosion of reinforcement could occur in

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Chlorides and concrete.

Corrosion of the reinforcement will be initiated when the chloride ion concentration at the steel reaches the so called ‘threshold level’. The subject of a safe level of chloride is somewhat controversial A fairly traditional view is that below 0.4% chloride by mass of cement represents a low corrosion risk, 0.4 to 1% a medium risk and above 1% a high risk. BRE Digest 444 gives a more ...

Get Price

Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview ...

The mechanism of chloride-induced corrosion of steel embedded in concrete, the ingress of chlorides into the concrete, and the threshold chloride content for corrosion to occur are discussed. The binding of chloride ions by cement compounds and the associated effect of using different cements, both Portland and blended, as well as other factors influencing corrosion, are considered. Tests for ...

Get Price

The effect of attack of chloride and sulphate on ground ...

Cement concrete structures in highly polluted urban and industrial areas, aggressive seashore environments, harmful subsoil water in coastal areas and many other hostile conditions makes the construction non-durable. Concrete is being used as a construction material in aggressive environment since long days. The more common form of chemical attack is the leaching out of cement and action

Get Price

EFFECT OF CARBONATION, CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE ATTACKS

Verma et al. (2013) evaluated effect of chloride attack and concrete cover on the probability of corrosion. The authors describe chloride ions penetration in concrete structures as a significant threat to the durability of concrete structures. It has been revealed that in reinforced concrete structures corrosion takes place when passive protective layer is destroyed by chloride ingress. To ...

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

19/11/2018  Weak solutions of calcium chloride generally have little chemical effect on concrete, but studies have shown that concentrated calcium chloride solutions can chemically attack concrete. Magnesium chloride deicers have come under recent criticism for aggravating scaling. One study found that magnesium chloride, magnesium acetate, magnesium nitrate, and calcium chloride are more

Get Price

Reinforcement Corrosion - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Reinforcement corrosion induced by chloride contamination is a leading cause of structural damage and premature degradation in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, with significant implications for safety, reliability, economics, and environmental performance. From: Eco-Efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures, 2018

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

The Role of Chloride Ions Exposure of reinforced concrete to chloride ions is the primary cause of premature corrosion of steel reinforcement. The intrusion of chloride ions, present in deicing salts and seawater, into reinforced concrete can cause steel corrosion if oxygen and moisture are also available to sustain the reaction (Fig. 4 ...

Get Price

Chemical Attack on Concrete - Structural Guide

04/01/2020  Chemical reactions create additional tensile stress in the concrete and cause cracking. There are three main causes that could cause cracking due to the actions of the chemical attack on concrete. Corrosion of Reinforcements; Alkali-aggregate reaction; Cement Carbonation shrinkage; Effect of Corrosion of Reinforcement on Cracking of Concrete. Corrosion of reinforcement could occur in

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Evaluating effect of chloride attack and concrete cover on ...

Chloride attack is one of the major causes of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. In order to evaluate the chloride behavior in concrete, a reasonable prediction for the diffusion ...

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r THE THRESHOLD LIMIT FOR CHLORIDE CORROSION OF REINFORCED ...

The most common cause of the rebar corrosion problem stems fiom introduction of chloride ions. The existence of chloride in concrete structures is due to (i) its use as an accelerator in the concrete mix, (ii) the presence of a marine atmosphere and (iii) the use of deicing salts. Chloride occurs in concrete in three forms: (i) chemically bound, (ii) physically adsorbed and (iii) free chloride ...

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